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2008考研英语二试题

时间:2019-01-28 13:25来源:中国考研网

2008考研英语二试题

2008考研英语二试题
 
Section I  Vocabulary
  Directions: There are 20 incomplete sentences in this section. For each sentence there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that best completes the sentence and mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
 
  1.Oil is an important ______material which can be processed into many different products, including plastics.
  A  raw         B bleak           C flexible           D fertile
  2.The high living standards of the US cause its present population to ____ 25 percent of the world’s oil.
  A  assume     B consume         C resume           D presume
  3.  You shouldn’t be so ___ ---I didn’t mean anything bad in what I said.
  A sentimental     B sensible         C sensitive           D sophisticated
  4.  Picasso was an artist who fundamentally changed the ___ of art for later generations.
  A. philosophy     B concept         C viewpoint          D theme
  5.  Member states had the option to ____ from this agreement with one year’s notice.
  A deny           B object          C suspect            D withdraw
  6.  The two countries achieved some progress in the sphere of trade relations, traditionally a source of ____ irritation.
  A mutual         B optional         C neutral            D parallel
  7.  Williams had not been there during the ___ moments when the kidnapping had taken place.
  A superior        B rigorous         C vital              D unique
  8.  Travel around Japan today, and one sees foreign residents a wide ____ of jobs.
  A  range         B field            C scale             D area
  9.  Modern manufacturing has ___ a global river of materials into a stunning array of new products.
  A translated       B transformed      C transferred         D transported
  10. Lightning has been the second largest storm killer in the US over the past 40 years and is ____ only by flood.
  A exceeded        B excelled        C excluded           D extended
  11. Voices were ____as the argument between the two motorists became more bad-tempered.
  A.swollen       B. increased       C. developed         D. raised
  12. Some sufferers will quickly be restored to prefect health, ___others will take a longer time.
  A. which          B. where          C. when            D. whereas
  13. My brother likes eating very much but he isn’t very ___about the food he eats.
  A. special         B. peculiar          C. particular        D. unusual
  14. Britain might still be part of France if it weren’t ____a disastrous flood 200.000 years ago, according to scientists from Imperial College in London.
  A. upon           B. with             C. in              D. for
  15. The water prize is an international award that __outstanding contributions towards solving global water problems.
  A. recognizes       B. requires          C. releases         D. relays
  16. In its 14 years of ____, the European Union has earned the scorn of its citizens and skepticism from the United States.
   A. endurance       B. emergence         C. existence       D. eminence
  17. His excuse for being late this morning was his car had __ in the snow.
  A. started up        B. got stuck          C. set back        D. stood by
  18.____widespread belief cockroaches (螳螂) would not take over the world if there were no around to step on them.
  A. In view of       B. Thanks to         C. In case of        D. Contrary to
  19. Consciously or not, ordinary citizens and government bureaucrats still _____the notion that Japanese society is a unique culture.
  A. fit in with       B. look down on       C. cling to          D. hold back
  20. As you can see by yourself, things ____to be exactly as the professor had foreseen.
  A . turned in        B. turned out         C. turned up         D. turned down
 
Section II  Cloze (10 points)
  Directions: Read the following pa /ssage. For each numbered blank there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best one and mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
 
  Olympic Games are held every four years at a different site, in which athletes _21__different nations compete against each other in a __22_ of sports. There are two types of Olympics, the Summer Olympics and the winter Olympics.
  In order to __23__the Olympics, a city must submit a proposal to the international Olympic committee (IOC). After all proposals have been _24___, the IOC votes. If one city is successful in gaining a majority in the first vote, the city with the fewest votes is eliminated, and voting continues with __25__rounds, until a majority winner is determined. Typically the Games are awarded several years in advance, __26__the winning city time to prepare for the Games. In selecting the _27__of the Olympic Games, the IOC considers a number of factors, chief among them which city has, or promises to build, the best facilities, and which organizing committee seems most likely to _28__the Games effectively.
  The IOC also _29__which parts of the world have not yet hosted the Games. _30__,Tolkyo, Japan, the host of the 1964 Summer Games, and Mexico city, Mexico, the host of the 1968 summer Games , were chosen _31__to popularize the Olympic movement In Asia and in Latin America.    _32__the growing importance of television worldwide, the IOC in recent years has also taken into _33__the host city’s time zone. _34__the Games take place in the United States or Canada, for example, American television networks are willing to pay _35___ higher amounts for television rights because they can broadcast popular events __36____, in prime viewing hours.
  ___37__the Games have been awarded. It is the responsibility of the local organizing committee to finance them. This is often done with a portion of the Olympic television ___38_ and with corporate sponsorships, ticket sales, and other smaller revenue sources. In many __39___ there is also direct government support.
  Although many cities have achieved a financial profit by hosting the Games, the Olympics can be financially __40___. When the revenues from the Games were less than expected, the city was left with large debts.
  21. A. in                B. for                 C. of             D. from
  22. A. lot               B. number              C. variety         D. series
  23. A. host              B. take                C. run            D. organize
  24. A. supported         B. submitted            C. substituted       D. subordinated
  25. A. suggestive         B. successful           C. successive       D. succeeding
  26. A. letting            B. setting              C. permitting        D. allowing
  27. A. site               B. spot                C. location         D. place
  28. A. state              B. stage               C. start            D. sponsor
  29. A. thinks             B. reckons             C. considers        D. calculates
  30. A. For instance        B. As a result          C. In brief         D. On the whole
  31. A. in time            B. in part              C. in case         D. in common
  32. A. Since             B. Because             C. As for         D. Because of
  33. A. amount            B. account            C. accord          D. acclaim
  34. A. However          B. Whatever           C. Whenever       D. Wherever
  35. A. greatly            B. handsomely         C. meaningfully     D. significantly
  36. A. live              B. living                 C. alive         D. lively
  37. A. Until             B. Unless                C. Whether      D. Once
  38. A. incomes           B. interests              C. revenues      D. returns
  39. A. cases             B. conditions             C. chances      D. circumstances
  40. A. safe              B. risky                C. tempting      D. feasible
 
Section   Reading Comprehension
  Directions: There are four passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B,C, and D. You should decide on the best choice and blacken the corresponding letter on ANSWER SHEET 1 . (40 points)
Questions 41 to 45 are based on the following passage:
 
  Last weekend Kyle MacDonald in Montreal threw a party to celebrate the fact that he got his new home in exchange for a red paper clip. Starting a year ago, MacDonald bartered the clip for increasingly valuable stuff, including a camp stove and free rent in a Phoenix flat. Having announced his aim (the house) in advance, MacDonald likely got a boost from techies eager to see the Internet pass this daring test of its networking power. “My whole motto (座右铭) was ‘Start small, think big, and have fun’, ” says MacDonald, 26, “I really kept my effort on the creative side rather than the business side. ”
  Yet as odd as the MacDonald exchange was, barter is now big business on the Net. This year more than 400,000 companies worldwide will exchange some $10 billion worth of goods and services on a growing number of barter sites. These Web sites allow companies to trade products for a virtual currency, which they can use to buy goods from other members. In Iceland, garment-maker Kapusalan sells a third of its output on the booming Vidskiptanetid exchange, earning virtual money that it uses to buy machinery and pay part of employee salaries. The Troc-services exchange in France offers more than 4,600 services, from math lessons to ironing.
  This is not a primitive barter system. By creating currencies, the Internet removes a major barrier—what Bob Meyer, publisher of BarterNews, calls “the double coincidence of wants.” That is, two parties once not only had to find each other, but also an exchange of goods that both desired. Now, they can price the deal in virtual currency.
  Barter also helps firms make use of idle capacity. For example, advertising is “hugely bartered” because many media, particularly on the Web can supply new ad space at little cost. Moreover, Internet ads don’t register in industry-growth statistics, because many exchanges are arranged outside the formal exchanges.
  Like eBay, most barter sites allow members to “grade” trading partners for honesty quality and so on.. Barter exchanges can allow firms in countries with hyperinflation or nontradable currencies to enter global trades. Next year, a nonprofit exchange called Quick Lift Two (QL2) plans to open in Nairobi, offering barter deals to 38,000 Kenyan farmers in remote areas. Two small planes will deliver the goods. QL2 director Gacii Waciuma says the farmers are excited to be “liberated from corrupt middlemen.” For them, barter evokes a bright future, not a precapitalist past.
 
  41. The word “techies” (Line 4, Para 1) probably refers to those who are ___.
  A. afraid of technology                 B. skilled in technology
  C. ignorant of technology               D. incompetent in technology
  42. Many people may have deliberately helped Kyle because they ___.
  A. were impressed by his creativity       B. were eager to identify with his motto
  C. liked his goal announced in advance    D. hoped to prove the power of the Internet
  43. The Internet barter system relies heavily on ___.
  A. the size of barter sties                B. the use of virtual currency
  C. the quality of goods or services        D. the location of trading companies]
  44. It is implies that Internet advertisements can help ___.
  A. companies make more profit           B. companies do formal exchanges
  C. media register in statistics             D. media grade barter sites
  45. Which of the follow is true of QL2 according to the author?
  A. It is criticized for doing business in a primitive way.
  B. It aims to deal with hyperinflation in some countries.
  C. It helps get rid of middlemen in trade and exchange.
  D. It is intended to evaluate the performance of trading partners.
 
  Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage:
  The lives of very few Newark residents are untouched by violence: New Jersey’s biggest city has seen it all. Yet the murder of three young people, who were forced to kneel before being shot in the back of the head in a school playground on August 4th, has shaken the city. A fourth, who survived, was stabbed and shot in the face. The four victims were by all accounts good kids, all enrolled in college, all with a future. But the cruel murder, it seems, has at last forced Newarkers to say they have had enough.
  Grassroots organizations, like Stop Shooting, have been flooded with offers of help and support since the killings. Yusef Ismail, its co-founder, says the group has been going door-to-door asking people to sign a pledge of non-violence. They hope to get 50,000 to promise to “stop shooting, start thinking, and keep living.” The Newark Community Foundation, which was launched last month, announced on August 14th that it will help pay for Community Eye, a surveillance(监视) system tailored towards gun crime.
  Cory Booker who became mayor 13 months ago with a mission to revitalize the city , believes the surveillance program will be the largest camera and audio network in any American city. More than 30 cameras were installed earlier this summer and a further 50 will be installed soon in a seven-square mile area where 80% of the city’s recent shootings have occurred. And more cameras are planned.
  When a gunshot is detected, the surveillance camera zooms in on that spot. Similar technology in Chicago has increased arrests and decreased shootings. Mr. Booker plans to announce a comprehensive gun strategy later this week.
  Mr. Booker, as well as church leaders and others, believes(or hopes)that after the murder the city will no longer stand by in coldness. For generations, Newark has been paralyzed by poverty ----almost one in three people lives below the poverty line----and growing indifference to crime.
  Some are skeptical .Steve Malanga of the conservative Manhattan Institute notes that Newark has deep social problems: over 60% of children are in homes without fathers. The school system, taken over by the state in 1995, is a mess. But there is also some cause for hope. Since Mr. Booker was elected, there has been a rise in investment and re-zoning for development. Only around 7% of nearby Newark airport workers used to come from Newark; now, a year, the figure is 30%.Mr Booker has launched a New York-style war on crime. So far this year, crime has fallen 11% and shootings are down 30 %( through the murder rate looks likely to match last year’s high).
 
  46. What happened in Newark, New Jersey on August 4th?
  A. The Newark residents witnessed a murder.
  B. Four young people were killed in a school playground.
  C. The new mayor of Newark took office.
  D. Four college students fell victim to violence.
  47. Judging from the context, the “Community Eye”(Line5,Para 2)is_____
A. a watching system for gun crime             
B. a neighborhood protection organization
C. an unprofitable community business          
D. a grassroots organization
  48.We learn from the passage that Newark has all the following problems EXCEPT_____
 
  A. violence                                   B. flood
  C. poverty                                    D. indifference
  49. Mayor Booker’s effort against crime seem to be ______
  A. idealistic                                   B. impractical
  C. effective                                   D. fruitless
  50. The best title for the passage may be _____
  A. Stop Shooting, Start Thinking, and Keep Living
  B. Efforts to Fight against Gun Crimes
  C. A Mission to Revitalize the City
  D. Violent Murders in Newark
 
  Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage:
  According to a recent survey on money and relationships, 36 percent of people are keeping a bank account from their partner. While this financial unfaithfulness may appear as distrust in a relationship , in truth it may just be a form of financial protection.
  With almost half of all marriages ending in divorce, men and women are realizing they need to be financially savvy, regardless of whether they are in a relationship.
  The financial hardship on individuals after a divorce can be extremely difficult, even more so when children are involved. The lack of permanency in relationships, jobs and family life may be the cause of a growing trend to keep a secret bank account hidden from a partner; in other words, an ”escape fund”.
  Margaret’s story is far from unique. She is a representative of a growing number of women in long-term relationships who are becoming protective of their own earnings.
  Every month on pay day, she banks hundreds of dollars into a savings account she keeps from her husband. She has been doing this throughout their six-year marriage and has built a nest egg worth an incredible $100,000 on top of her pension.
  Margaret says if her husband found out about her secret savings he’d hurt and would interpret this as a sign she wasn’t sure of the marriage.” He’d think it was my escape fun so that financially I could afford to get out of the relationship if it went wrong. I know you should approach marriage as being forever and I hope ours is, but you can never be sure.”
  Like many of her fellow secret savers, Margaret was stung in a former relationship and has since been very guarded about her own money.
  Coming clean to your partner about being a secret saver may not be all that bad. Take Colleen for example, who had been saving secretly for a few years before she confessed to her partner. ”I decided to open a savings account and start building a nest egg of my own. I wanted to prove to myself that I could put money in the bank and leave it there for a rainy day.”
  “When John found out about my secret savings, he was a little suspicious of my motives. I reassured him that this was certainly not an escape fund that I feel very secure in out relationship. I have to admit that it does feel good to have my own money on reserve if ever there are rainy days in the future. It’s sensible to build and protect your personal financial security.”
 
  51. The trend to keep a secret bank account is growing because______
  A. escape fund helps one through rainy days       B. days are getting harder and harder
  C. women are money sensitive                  D. financial conflicts often occur
  52. The word “savvy”(Line2,Para 2)probably means_______
  A. suspicious                                 B. secure
  C. shrewd                                    D. simple
  53. Which inference can we make about Margaret?
  A. She is a unique woman.                      B. She was once divorced.
  C. She is going to retire.                        D. She has many children.
  54. The author mentions Colleen’s example to show_____
  A. any couple can avoid marriage conflicts
  B. privacy within marriage should be respected
  C. everyone can save a fortune with a happy marriage
D. financial disclosure is not necessarily bad
  55. Which of the following best summary this passage?
  A. Secret Savers                              B. Love Is What It’s Worth
C. Banking Honesty                           D. Once Bitten, Twice Shy
 
Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage:
  “The word ‘protection’ is no longer taboo (禁忌语)”. This short sentence, uttered by French President Nicolas Sarkozy last month, may have launched a new era in economic history. Why? For decades, Western leaders have believed that lowering trade barriers and tariffs was a natural good. Doing so, they reasoned, would lead to greater economic efficiency and productivity, which in turn would improve human welfare. Championing free trade thus became a moral, not just an economic, cause.
  These leaders, of course, weren’t acting out of unselfishness. They knew their economies were the most competitive, so they’d profit most from liberalization. And developing countries feared that their economies would be swamped by superior Western productivity. Today, however, the tables have turned---though few acknowledge it. The West continues to preach free trade, but practices it less and less. Asian, meanwhile, continues to plead for special protection but practices more and more free trade.
  That’s why Sarkozy’s words were so important: he finally injected some honesty into the trade debates. The truth is that large parts of the West are losing faith in tree trade, though few leaders admit it. Some economists are more honest. Paul Krugman is one of the few willing to acknowledge that protectionist arguments are returning. In the short run, there will be winners and losers under free trade. This, of course, is what capitalism is all about. But more and more of these losers will be in the West, Economists in the developed world used to love quoting Jonoph Schumpeter, who said that ‘creative destruction” was an essential part of capitalist growth. But they always assumed that destruction would happen over there. When Western workers began losing jobs, suddenly their leaders began to lose faith in their principles, Things have yet to reverse completely. But there’s clearly a negative trend in a Western theory and practice.
  A little hypocrisy (虚伪) is not in itself a serious problem. The real problem is that Western governments continue to insist that they retain control of the key global economic and financial institutions while drifting away from global liberalization. Lock at what’s happening at the IMF (International Monetary Fund) The Europeans have demanded that they keep the post of managing director. But all too often, Western officials put their own interests above everyone else’s when they dominate these global institutions.
  The time has therefore come for the Asians-who are clearly the new winners in today’s global economy-to provide more intellectual leadership in supporting free trade: Sadly, they have yet to do so. Unless Asians speak out, however, there’s a real danger that Adam Smith’s principles, which have brought so much good to the world, could gradually die. And that would leave all of us, worse off, in one way or another.
  56. It can be inferred that “protection” (Line 1, Para.1) means________
  A. improving economic efficiency.             B. ending the free-trade practice
  C. lowering moral standard                    D. raising trade tariffs
  57. The Western leaders preach free trade because________
  A. it is beneficial to their economies
  B. it is supported by developing countries
  C. it makes them keep faith in their principles
  D. it is advocated by Joseph Schumpeter and Adam Smith
  58. By “the tables have turned” (Line 3-4,Para.2) the author implies that________
  A. the Western leaders have turned self-centered
  B. the Asian leaders have become advocates of free trade
  C. the developed economies have turned less competitive
  D. the developing economies have become more independent
  59. The Western economies used to like the idea of “creative destruction” because it________
  A. set a long-term rather than short-turn goal
  B. was an essential part of capitalist development
  C. contained a positive rather than negative mentality
  D. was meant to be the destruction of developing economies
 
  60. The author uses “IMF” was an example to illustrate the point that_______
  A. European leaders are reluctant to admit they are hypocritical
  B. there is an inconsistency between Western theory and practice
  C. global institutions are not being led by true globalization advocates
  D. European countries’ interests are being ignored by economic leaders
 
  Section IV  Translation
  Directions: In this section there is a paragraph in English .Translate it into Chinese and write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2 . (20 points)
 
  The term ”business model” first came into widespread use with the invention of personal computer and the spreadsheet(空白表格程序).Before the spreadsheet, business planning usually meant producing a single forecast. At best, you did a little sensitivity analysis around the projection. The spreadsheet ushered in a much more analytic approach to planning because every major line item could be pulled apart, its components and subcomponents analyzed and tested. You could ask what- if questions about the critical assumptions on which. your business depended-for example, what if customers are more price-sensitive than we thought?-and with a few keystrokes, you could see how any change would play out on every aspect of the whole. In other words, you could model the behavior of a business. Before the computer changed the nature of business planning, most successful business models were created more by accident than by elaborate design. By enabling companies to tie their marketplace insights much more tightly to the resulting economics, spread sheet made it possible to model business before they were launched.
 
Section V  Writing
  Directions: In this part, you are asked to write a composition according to the information below. You should write more than 150 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2 . (20 points)
  以往许多人报考成人高校,是为了圆文凭梦。如今,手持本科、硕士文凭,回头重新考大学的大有人在。据报道,今年报名全国成人高考的上海考生中,有390名本科毕业生,15名硕士生。
 
  写一篇约150字左右的作文进行评论和表达自己的意见。